APVV Projects

National

MALBOR-ECO – Ekológia hostiteľskej špecifickosti vektormi prenášaných parazitov
Ecology of host specificity in vector-borne parasites
Program: SRDA
Project leader: MVDr. Derdáková Markéta PhD.
Annotation: Emergence and spread of new infectious diseases is becoming a never more serious medical, societal and economical problem. Increasingly more diseases expand their ranges or re-emerge in areas from where theyhad been wiped out long ago. The emergence of new diseases is most frequently attributed to global environmental changes, including climate change, land use changes and changes in human concentration. A key role in the spread of new diseases is attributed to changed patterns of animal migration and therefore also oftheir parasites – potential vectors of diseases. Despite great effort, knowledge into the causes of the successful transmission and spread of vector-borne parasites is still only poorly understood. Consequently, theoreticalprediction models of the spread of diseases and efforts to halt this spread are not effective. The aim of this project is to increase the understanding of the causes of host specifity and the regulation of circulation of vectorborne parasites. We will use two globally important study systems that involve tick-borne Borrelia spirochetes and insect-borne Plasmodium and Haemaproteus haemosporidians. The objective is to identify taxonomic, genetic and phylogenetic structure of local host associations and to assess if host specificity is a result of hostspecialization by parasites or i tis a result of host and vector ecology.
Duration: 1.7.2017 – 30.6.2021
SGT – O ovciach, kozách a víruse kliešťovej encefalitídy
Of Sheep, Goats and Tick-borne Encephalitis virus
Program: SRDA
Project leader: MVDr. Derdáková Markéta PhD.
Annotation: Emerging tick-borne encephalitis from May this year in eastern Slovakia, has been the largest in number ofcases for the last five years. As usual, it was supposed that products from raw sheep\’s milk had been thecausative agens. Such enormous epidemic is striking due to the regular routine screening of sheep milk. Wehave known many foodborne infections from history, but most of cases was related to goat\’s milk. The aim of theproposed project is a comparative analysis involving sheep respectively goats foodborne infections. With regardto exact criteria it will be selected a representative number of farms from all Slovakia. We will investigate the milkof sheep and goats, as well as ticks collected from direct observation of the animals. It will be done for eachfarm. Sample will be examined by highly sensitive molecular biological methods for the virus presence. Fromanimal blood we evaluated the serological status of all investigated animals. Evaluation of the results we can seehow engaged sheep and goats in the case of food-borne infections. In the case of virus positive samples bysequencing analysis we obtain very valuable information about the genetic diversity of the TBEV in our country.An equally important outcome of the project will be specific methodological recommendations for farmers interms of preventing foodborne disease.
Duration: 1.7.2017 – 30.6.2021
Úloha neuropeptidov a ich receptorov pri regulácii aktivity endokrinných a reprodukčných orgánov priadky morušovej (Bombyx mori)
The role of neuropeptides and their receptors in regulation of endocrine and reproductive organs in the silkworm (Bombyx mori)
Program: SRDA
Project leader: Ing. Roller Ladislav PhD.
Annotation: Insects are widespread and evolutionary extremely successful group of animals that show unique adaptations during development and reproduction. These adaptations are mediated by special endocrine glands including corpora allata (CA) that produce juvenile hormones (JH) and various modifications of reproductive organs. These important organs are under control of regulatory compounds that include neuropeptides produced by neurons and endocrine cells. However, neuroendocrine processes controlling activity of the CA in different developmental stages are not fully understood. Our preliminary and published data indicate that JH production from the CA is controlled by several peptidergic cells, whose specific functions in this process remain to be determined. Likewise, the role of neuropeptides during mating, fertilization and egg laying is not fully understood. Therefore, in this project we will identify neuropeptides, receptors and peptidergic cells involved in regulation of the CA and reproductive organs in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We will analyze neurons directly innervating these organs, as well as endocrine Inka cells that may control these organs via humoral pathways. We will employ techniques of molecular biology and immunohistochemistry to identify signaling molecules and peptidergic cells, while transgenic approaches in combination with physiological and behavioral assays will be used to determine roles of specific neuropeptides and their receptors. Expected results are important for understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying regulation of development and reproduction, which require complex neuroendocrine communication between peripheral organs and CNS.
Duration: 1.7.2017 – 30.6.2021