The Institute was established (as Institute of Zoology and Ecosozology SAS) in 1990, after transformation and division of the Institute of Experimental Biology and Ecology SAS. It originally consisted of three departments: Dept. of Soil Zoology, Dept. of Ecosozology & Monitoring, and Dept. of Zoocenology. In 1991, the Departments of Ichthyology and Hydrobiology (formerly Institute of Fishery Research and Hydrobiology SAS) were integrated into the Institute. In 1993, the Institute was extended by inclusion of the Department of Entomology (formerly belonging to the Institute of Experimental Phytopathology and Entomology SAS), and Department of Vertebrate Ecology (formerly part of the Institute of Agricultural Landscape Ecology SAS). In 1995, the name was changed to Institute of Zoology SAS. The Department of Virus Ecology which included several employees of the Institute of Virology SAS was established in the same year. Its transformation later resulted in the constitution of a joint department of the Institutes of Virology and Zoology. At the end of 1995, Institute of Zoology SAS had 6 departments and this structure maintained till May 2008 when it became organized into three (later four) sections. Since July 2018, the Institute consisted of four departments (Dept. of Animal Ecology, Dept. of Animal Systematics, Dept. of Medical Zoology, and Dept. of Molecular Physiology). The fifth department was established in March 2023 (Department of Genetics and Ecophysiology). The departments reflect the Institute’s main research interests. On 01 January 2022, as a result of SAS transformation, the Institute changed its legal form to public research institution.